Social learning

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Question 14.5 pts
Read the following description of a community and determine whether or not it meets the criteria to be categorized as a society.
This community exists on an island in the Pacific Ocean. There are about 20,000 people on this island who are divided into 3 different castes. Marriage between the castes is forbidden, and each caste has specific occupations associated with it. The members of the community trade together and gather for cultural ceremonies and practices.
Group of answer choicesYes this is a societyNo this is not a society
Flag question: Question 2Question 24.5 pts
Which of the following is NOT a sociological question?
Group of answer choicesAre women and men treated differently in the workplace?Why do college students engage in social drinking?
How do religious beliefs shape human behavior?
Is homosexuality morally right?
Flag question: Question 3Question 34.5 pts
You are working in a medical clinic and a patient comes in seeking help with an addiction to opioids. The sociological imagination reminds you that you should look beyond the personal characteristics (or “biography”) of this patient in order to fully understand the situation. What else should you consider (there are 2 correct answers; you must select both to get points for this question)
Group of answer choicesSociety (for example, social stigma around addiction)History (for example, the context of the opioid epidemic)
Biology (for example, a genetic predisposition to addiction)
Symbolism (for example, red ribbon used in school programs about the dangers of drugs)
Flag question: Question 4Question 44.5 pts
Which of the following is NOT a part of culture?
Group of answer choicesBeliefs & ValuesDNA & genetic kinship
Practices & Behaviors
Physical items
Flag question: Question 5Question 54.5 pts
In US culture, the concept of individuality is very important. Fashion and clothing reflects this; for example, it is seen as embarrassing to show up to an event wearing the same outfit as someone else.
Identify the different (but related) components of culture in this example.
Group of answer choicesValue [ Choose ] Clothing Individuality You should not wear the same outfit as someone else
Material Culture
[ Choose ] Clothing Individuality You should not wear the same outfit as someone else
Social Norm
[ Choose ] Clothing Individuality You should not wear the same outfit as someone else
Flag question: Question 6Question 64.5 pts
Clothing, utensils, and building styles are examples of which of the following?
Group of answer choicesMaterial cultureCultural capital
Conflict theory
Functionalism
Flag question: Question 7Question 74.5 pts
While traveling in rural Nepal, a tourist from the US finds out that some people in the region practice fraternal polyandry (a form of marriage where one woman marries a set of brothers). The tourist reacts with disgust and declares that this is an uncivilized, irrational, and completely immoral practice that makes absolutely no sense.
What is this tourist engaging in?
Group of answer choicesCultural relativismEthnocentrism
Personal preference
Stating the truth
Flag question: Question 8Question 84.5 pts
A researcher wants to learn more about how undergraduate students use their time outside of class. To collect data about this, the researcher selects a group of 5 students and starts secretly following them around campus taking notes about where they go and what they do. Another professor learns about this and reports the researcher to the university for ethical violations. What aspect of ethical research has this researcher violated?
Group of answer choicesPhysical harmInformed consent
Misuse of authority
Disclosure of private information
Flag question: Question 9Question 94.5 pts
In looking at how Americans spend their time, I observe that in heterosexual married couples where both husband and wife work full time, wives spend more time doing household chores and childcare after work while husbands have more free time for activities like watching TV.
I explain this as being the result of a gendered division of labor that favors (is better for) men. What sociological perspective (theory) am I using to explain the data?
Group of answer choicesFunctionalismConflict
Symbolic Interactionism
Social Construction
Flag question: Question 10Question 104.5 pts
There is an extreme degree of political and cultural polarization (division and disagreement) in US society currently. In this context, it can be difficult to determine if there is a shared understanding or idea about what it means to be American and there is a large amount of variation in what people think is the “right way” to behave.
Which of the following sociological concept best describes this situation?
Group of answer choicesMarxismAlienation
Industrialization
Anomie
Flag question: Question 11Question 114.5 pts
I hypothesize that high school students who watch a lot of TV will have more stereotypes about women then students who watch less TV. What is the independent variable?
Flag question: Question 12Question 124.5 pts
Read the following abstract and select the best description for the method used in this study.
Deportations from the United States reached record highs in the aftermath of the Great Recession (2007-2009). At the peak, over 400,000 people were deported from the United States. The majority of these deportees have U.S. citizen family members, nearly all of whom continue to live in the United States. […] This article draws from interviews with 27 people from California who experienced the deportation of a family member to provide insight into the effects of deportation on these families. […] The findings reveal that family members face short, medium, and long-term consequences in the aftermath of a deportation and that many adolescents are forced to make an abrupt transition to adulthood when one or both of their parents is deported.
Source: Golash-Boza, T. (2019). Punishment beyond the deportee: The collateral consequences of deportation. American Behavioral Scientist, 63(9), 1331-1349.
Group of answer choicesSurveyInterviews
Experiment
Focus groups
Flag question: Question 13Question 134.5 pts
Match the term with the appropriate definition
Group of answer choicesSociological methods [ Choose ] How we measure patterns How we create patterns The patterns themselves How we explain patterns
Sociological theories
[ Choose ] How we measure patterns How we create patterns The patterns themselves How we explain patterns
Flag question: Question 14Question 144.5 pts
School teaches us many things. Identify which are manifest and which are latent functions of schooling.
Learning to read and write [ Select ] [“Manifest function”, “Latent function”]
Learning to sit quietly [ Select ] [“Manifest fuction”, “Latent function”]
Learning to obey authority [ Select ] [“Manifest function”, “Latent function”]
Learning how to do math [ Select ] [“Manifest function”, “Latent function”]
Flag question: Question 15Question 154.5 pts
Walking up or down the stairs in the middle instead of on the right side is an example of breaking a ___.
Group of answer choicesSanctionFolkway
More
Law
Flag question: Question 16Question 164.5 pts
I grew up in the US, but I studied abroad in the Middle East for a year as a college student. During this time I had to learn new social rules. One of the social norms I had to learn is that it is common for women to greet other women with a hug and kisses on the cheek (and for men to greet other men this way). No one explained this norm to me directly. Instead I had to learn this from watching other people and by making mistakes and being scolded or laughed at for doing it wrong.
What is the term for the process I am describing here?
Group of answer choicesEthnocentrismAttribution
Functionalism
Socialization
Flag question: Question 17Question 174.5 pts
What aspect of culture am I describing in the example in the previous question?
Group of answer choicesShared values & beliefsShared practices
Shared identity
Material culture
Flag question: Question 18Question 184.5 pts
Which sociological concept best describes the idea being expressed in this meme?
Group of answer choicesMechanical SolidarityPresentation of Self
Rationality
Anomie
Flag question: Question 19Question 194.5 pts
Identities are unstable; they depend on context and audience.
Group of answer choicesTrueFalse
Flag question: Question 20Question 204.5 pts
I see myself as being a good person who cares about others; because of this, even when I am angry, I try to smile and be polite. What am I doing?
Group of answer choicesBehaviorismSocialization
Self-regulating
Engaging in representation
Flag question: Question 21Question 214.5 pts
Students, faculty, and visitors chatting while standing in line to attend a football game on campus are an example a ____.
Group of answer choicesGroupCrowd
Category
All of the above
Flag question: Question 22Question 224.5 pts
Which of the following is an example of an instrumental function?
Group of answer choicesWorking with a group of students to divide work for a class presentationComforting a friend who is going through a difficult break-up
Reading a book for fun
None of the above
Flag question: Question 23Question 234.5 pts
Parents scold a little boy for crying and tell him he needs to calm down and “act like a man”. The little boy learns from this experience that crying is not acceptable for him because of his gender. What type of socialization has occurred?
Group of answer choicesIndividualizationDiscipline
Social learning
Developmental milestones
Flag question: Question 24Question 244.5 pts
When a person decided to wear or not wear a mask based on what people in their social circles are doing, they are making a decision based on ____
Group of answer choicestheir reference grouptheir best judgement
the scientific evidence
their legal rights
Flag question: Question 25Question 254.5 pts
Many years ago, I worked in a kindergarten classroom. In this class there was one little boy who wore his hair long in two braids because of his family’s culture and religion. When new adults came to volunteer or work in the classroom, they were warned that the child with the braids was a boy not a girl because there had been problems in the past when adults assumed that the child was a little girl because of his long hair. What were adults doing when they assumed this little boy’s identity?
Group of answer choicesSocializationDramaturgy
Attribution
Labeling theory
Flag question: Question 26Question 264.5 pts
In the novel (and play) Les Misérables, the main character, Jean Valjean is arrested and sent to prison after he breaks into a bakery to steal bread because he and his family are starving
Which theory of deviance best describes Valjean’s actions?
Group of answer choicesStrain TheoryLabeling Theory
Dramaturgical Theory
Differential Association Theory
Flag question: Question 27Question 274.5 pts
Once someone has gone to prison for a serious crime, they may find it difficult to ever remove the label of criminal. For example, they may be asked about their criminal history when looking for a job or an apartment. This is an example of _____.
Group of answer choicesPrimary devianceSecondary deviance
Tertiary deviance
Quadrivalent deviance
Flag question: Question 28Question 284.5 pts
At the Olympics there are strict procedures to try to prevent athletes from using prohibited performance enhancing drugs and to catch athletes who do use these drugs to unfairly improve their performance. When an athlete is caught, they are punished publicly, for example, by losing their medal, being banned from competition for a period of time, and having their reputation tarnished in the media. Which of the following is the best example of a functionalist explanation for this situation.
Group of answer choicesBy publicly punishing the athlete, shared norms against using these drugs are reinforced. Other competitors are reminded that this is not allowed and are discouraged from engaging in similar deviance.Concerns about use of performance enhancing drugs can be used to reinforce existing inequalities. For example, athletes from more powerful countries or with access to more resources may be able to find ways around these rules and therefore have an advantage. Accusations of substance use can be used to create doubt or suspicion around athletes who have less power.
The decision to use illegal performance enhancing drugs, and to risk getting caught, is a result of the relationship between athlete and coach.
Once an athlete has been caught and punished for using these substances, the label of “cheater” will be hard for them to get rid of. Being publicly punished will have lifelong consequences such as a loss of financial sponsorships and future job prospects.
Flag question: Question 29Question 294.5 pts
Match each example with the best description
Group of answer choicesA promotion at work [ Choose ] Formal positive sanction Informal negative sanction Informal positive sanction Formal negative sanction
A ticket and a fine for speeding
[ Choose ] Formal positive sanction Informal negative sanction Informal positive sanction Formal negative sanction
Someone giving you the finger (an insulting hand gesture)
[ Choose ] Formal positive sanction Informal negative sanction Informal positive sanction Formal negative sanction
A smile and congratulations
[ Choose ] Formal positive sanction Informal negative sanction Informal positive sanction Formal negative sanction
Flag question: Question 30Question 304.5 pts
Over the last year, many workers who were able to transition to working from home found that they appreciated the increased control over their work conditions (for example having more choice in what they wore, when they took breaks, who they were around, etc). The increased satisfaction experienced by workers under these conditions illustrates that their previous condition of work created ____.
Group of answer choicesAnomieAlienation
Antipositivism
Equilibrium
Flag question: Question 31Question 3115 pts
Explain the concept of social construction (the usual rules about plagiarism apply here. If you quote from a source, it must be cited).
In your answer do the following:
Define social construction.
Describe at least one way to recognize that something might be socially constructed.
Explain whether something that is socially constructed is real or not.

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