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Sep 28, 2022Sep 28 at 11:16pm
Strategic Alliance is define as a formal relationship created with the purpose of joint pursuit of mutual goals. (Ferrell, Fraedrich & Ferrell, 2017).
Out of the two articles I chose “Knowledge sharing and knowledge protection in strategic alliances: the effects of trust and formal contracts” This article discussed how knowledge is shared between partners of strategic alliances. It also looks into how the partners keep said knowledge protected. It looks at the impact knowledge sharing and knowledge protection has on new product development. A survey was conducted with 302 Chinese firms that indicated ambidexterity of knowledge sharing and knowledge protection enhanced new product development. The results showed that trust has an inverted U-shaped relationship with the ambidexterity dimension; that formal contracts are damaging to the ambidexterity dimension; and that the interaction between trust and formal contracts adversely affects ambidexterity. This article talks about the positive role played by moderate social control in maintaining ambidexterity. (Wenyu Guo, Jianjun Yang, Dan Li & Chongchong Lyu , 2020).
The increase in globalization and competition, it makes more sense for firms to engage in strategic alliances so that they can develop complex technological products by integrating their knowledge (Jiang et al. 2013). Knowledge sharing is key to achieving common goals in strategic alliances (Wu et al. 2007). By sharing knowledge, each party in an alliance can demonstrate firm-specific skills and expertise to their partner, which benefits the parties’ joint development (Yang et al. 2014). Strategic alliances are more popular compared to strategies where organizations attempting to do it by themselves. Strategic alliances have helped businesses be competitive. Studies that were conducted showed that simultaneous application of knowledge sharing and knowledge protection is crucial in strategic alliances (Wu et al. 2007). Most studies have considered these two activities as incompatible (Yang et al. 2014). Prior studies have suggested that simultaneously applying knowledge sharing and knowledge protection is essential in strategic alliances (Kale, Singh, and Perlmutter 2000), and in practice, the two usually co-occur.
A Biblical verse that I feel relates to strategic alliances would be Proverbs27:17 “As iron sharpens iron, so one person sharpens another.” (NIV, 2011). I relate this verse to the topic because alliances are formed between companies, competition, etc. The partnerships often cross national and cultural boundaries. (Ferrell, Fraedrich & Ferrell, 2017).
Ferrell, O. C., Fraedrich, J., & Ferrell, L. (2017). Business ethics: ethical decision making and cases. Eleventh edition. Boston, MA, Cengage Learning.
Wenyu Guo, Jianjun Yang, Dan Li & Chongchong Lyu (2020) Knowledge sharing and knowledge protection in strategic alliances: the effects of trust and formal contracts, Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 32:11, 1366-1378, DOI: 10.1080/09537325.2020.1769840Links to an external site.
Jiang, X., M. Li, S. Gao, Y. Bao, and F. Jiang. 2013. “Managing Knowledge Leakage in Strategic Alliances: The Effects of Trust and Formal Contracts.” Industrial Marketing Management 42 (6): 983–991.
Wu, F., R. R. Sinkovics, S. T. Cavusgil, and C. A. S. Roath. 2007. “Overcoming Export Manufacturers’ Dilemma in International Expansion.” Journal of International Business Studies 38 (2): 283–302.
Yang, S. M., S. C. Fang, S. R. Fang, and C. H. Chou. 2014. “Knowledge Exchange and Knowledge Protection in Interorganizational Learning: The Ambidexterity Perspective.” Industrial Marketing Management 43 (2): 346–358
Kale, P., H. Singh, and H. Perlmutter. 2000. “Learning and Protection of Proprietary Assets in Strategic Alliances: Building Relational Capital.” Strategic Management Journal 21 (3): 217–237.
Bible English New International Version & Bible English New International Version. (2011). The holy bible: New international version. (bible niv international version). Hodder & Stoughton.
ThursdaySep 29 at 3:53pm
ERG theory, as described by the authors, is a “threefold conceptualisation of human needs” that, unlike Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, “has the advantage of assuming that each of three domains can be satisfied independently” (Ingvardson et al., 2020, p. 339). The three major domains of need are existence, relatedness, and growth (ERG).
Ingvardson et al. (2020) in their article “Existence, relatedness and growth needs as mediators between mode choice and travel satisfaction: evidence from Denmark” discuss how the choice between modes of transportation has been largely oversimplified to consider only positive or negative utility, but the reality is that “there is a sense of satisfaction that derives from the travel itself” (p. 338). Many of the authors are existing or former professors for the Technical University of Denmark and include credentials such as a PhD in public transport and a PhD from MIT. Their study specifically “focuses on the hypothesis that more th[a]n it’s functional value of arriving from A to B, mode choice creates travel experiences that answer high-order needs such as relatedness, autonomy and competence” (p. 337). The authors believe that Alderfer’s human needs theory could serve as the “missing link” to understanding how mode choice affects travel satisfaction. Theoretically, businesses and city leaders can use ERG theory to form new marketing strategies or adjust infrastructure plans accordingly. Through their research, the authors ultimately conclude that “the interdependence of mode use and travel satisfaction is related to the ability of the travel mode experience to satisfy functional and emotional human needs of relatedness and growth” (p. 354). Travel, therefore, should not be considered merely a means to an end, but as a fulfillment of needs in its own right.
Ingvardson et al. (2021) unpack ERG theory in order to utilize it in an extremely practical sense. Their research approaches the concept of travel with the presupposition that it “encompasses subjective well-being” (p. 354). Therefore, the authors strongly impress the necessity of considering human needs through frameworks like ERG theory. By assessing the different ways that human beings receive satisfaction from driving a car instead riding a bike or riding a bike instead of taking public transportation, readers can see how both those who create and sell forms of transportation, like car manufacturers or bicycle shops, and those who manage public transportation and their respective infrastructures can benefit from this insight. Through their findings, the researchers suggest that “development in relation to sustainable modes and relevant branding may result in successful long-term shift towards sustainable travel” (p. 354) since it is possible for travelers to receive satisfaction from the act of traveling and not merely from their destination.
Looking through a different lens, Cheung et al. (2021) in their study “The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the psychological needs of tourists: Implications for the travel and tourism industry” seek to explore the psychological satisfaction of tourist before, during, and after COVID-19. To do so, they use Alderfer’s existence, relatedness, and growth model to “identify the basic psychological needs of the tourists in a pandemic situation” (p. 155). Whereas Ingvardson et al. assess travel satisfaction from the perspective of a daily commuter, Cheung et al. broaden the scope by analyzing domestic and international travel. They employ ERG theory to gain perspective into how travel fulfills higher human needs, such as the need for connection and relationships. One of their interviewees commented how they are experiencing a desire for their relatedness needs to be fulfilled because, during the pandemic, there was “only the Internet to connect to the outside world. The whole world would cease to exist if I turned off my mobile phone, television and computer” (p. 160). Cheung et al. agree that “there are many opportunities for the tourism and hospitality industry to address the psychological needs of travelers using the lens of ERG theory” (p. 164). For example, businesses that stepped up their social media presence during the pandemic correctly addressed the growing need for connectedness in communities that were forced to stay apart. By evaluating how travel affects human psychological needs through ERG theory, businesses can strategize new ways of helping their customers fulfill those gaps.
In the book of Ecclesiastes, Solomon discusses, in quite a melancholy way, how life and all of its various aspects are futile and void of meaning. Although on one hand he states that “everything is futile and a pursuit of the wind,” (Christian Standard Bible, 2017, Ecclesiates 2:17) he also concludes that “[t]here is nothing better for a person than to eat, drink, and enjoy his work” (Ecclesiates 2:24). As gloomy as it sounds, Solomon ultimately finds hope when he realizes that some of life’s purpose is to enjoy even the most mundane parts of it, for God brings meaning into it all. Therefore, believers can discover joy and significance in moments that are otherwise boring, tedious or dull. Both studies revealed that human beings can and will find fulfillment in activities that are not necessarily meant to be fulfilling.
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Cheung, C., Takashima, M., Choi, H., Yang, H. & Tung, V. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the psychological needs of tourists: implications for the travel and tourism industry. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 38(2), 155-166. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2021.1887055
Christian Standard Bible. (2017). Bible Gateway. https://biblegateway.com/.
Ingvardson, J. B., Kaplan, S., de Abreu e Silva, J., di Ciommo, F., Yoram, S. & Nielsen, O. A. (2020). Existence, relatedness and growth needs as mediators between mode choice and travel satisfaction: evidence from Denmark. Transportation, 47(1), 337-358. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11116-018-9886-3